The Neuro-Stim is a peripheral nerve field stimulator that is
FDA Cleared for a target population of acute and chronic pain.
Sympathetically maintained or medicated pain (nociception) is a complex feedback loop and is generally accomplished via a cranial nerve/nerves entering the Nucleus Tractus Solitaries (NTS). The impulses are tracked into the hypothalamus, amygdala, the thalamus, the hippocampus and circuits throughout the neuro-matrix interconnecting the synaptic impulses via the limbic system. The limbic system is a key component of the CNS that links stress, anxiety and pain from the somatic or visceral structures. The amygdala in particular, integrates information regarding fear, anxiety and pain and facilitates the individual phenotypic responses. The central nucleus of the amygdala is also the output nucleus of the amygdala and has major projections to the forebrain and brainstem through which it also influences spinal neurons. Nociceptive drives entering the spinal cord from afferent signals (somatic or visceral) are modulated by brainstem nuclei including the RVM (Rostral Ventromedial Medulla) and PAG (Periaqueductal Gray). In fact, studies have shown that hyperactivity of neurons in the amygdala occur in chronic pain conditions regardless of whether the pain is originating form somatic or visceral structures. The major parasympathetic connection is the vagal nerve, the stimulation of which alters signals reducing sympathetic functions that affect the hypothalamic - adrenal - thyroid - pituitary axis; often negatively affecting homeostasis 1.